Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions

Recently, India reported its second case of monkeypox infection in Kerala’s Kannur district. The patient traveled from Dubai and now presently undergoing treatment at a hospital. The first case of the monkeypox virus in India was found on July 14, after a UAE visitor returned to Kerala. In this article get more information about  Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions- Consult Asthma Bhawan– Best Allergy Hospital in Jaipur | Rajasthan | India

What is Monkeypox Virus?

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPXV) which is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Zoonotic virus refers to such infectious pathogen which has jumped from one species to another, which in this case is animal (usually a vertebrate) to human. Poxviruses belong to class I viruses which are dsDNA viruses. This means the genetic material of these viruses is DNA, a genomic size of which is around 190kb. Clinical presentation of monkeypox virus resembles smallpox virus which is eradicated worldwide through global vaccination campaigns.

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The first case of MPXV in humans was reported in the year 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo after the eradication of smallpox from the country back then. WHO had declared this disease is an endemic in Central and West Africa, after the outbreak in these regions. Monkeypox is less contagious and less severe than smallpox in causing illness in humans. Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions

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Key features of Monkey Pox | Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions

  • This disease is a zoonotic disease.
  • It is usually a self-limit disease.
  • It is transmit by close contact with lesions of an infect individual, body fluids, respiratory droplets or contaminated utilities of an infect person.
  • Rare disease but is on an alert after new cases are being report in regions outside the declare endemic areas through travelers.
  • It is less severe and transmissible.
  • It is less fatal than other viral diseases.
  • Symptomatically, it resembles other viral pox diseases with a few differential features.

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Causes and transmission:

Monkeypox is a dsDNA viral disease, of which animal-to-human transmission is caused by direct contact with an infected animal such as its body fluids, lesions and gain entry into humans through open wounds, through the meat of infected animals or the respiratory passage. What Are The Long-Term Lung Problems After Covid-19?

Human-to-human transmission occurs through close contact with respiratory secretions of an infected person, skin lesions, recently contaminated objects or blood to blood contact. Sexual contact could be one of the potential modes of transmission; however, there is no evidence about the same, according to WHO.  Always keep update yourself about Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions

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Symptoms of Monkeypox Infection:

It is necessary to know the incubation period of any disease, i.e., the period between exposure of an individual to the virus and the appearance of first symptoms, to know about the disease and differentiate it from other viral diseases. The incubation period of MPXV is usually 6-13 days but can range from a period of 5 to 21 days, varying in different individuals. Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions. Initial symptoms include:

  • High fever
  • Swelling in the body
  • Severe headache
  • Lack of energy
  • Skin rash and blisters
  • Red rash over time
  • Illness lasting 1 to 3 weeks
  • Unbearable pain in the rash, swollen joints

However, these symptoms also resemble other pox viral diseases. Major characterization of this disease is done based on a prominent symptom which is Lymphadenopathy, which differentiates it from diseases like chickenpox, smallpox, measles etc.

Lymphadenopathy refers to swelling in the lymph nodes which enlarge in response to the pathogen that has caused infection in the body. The occurrence of these symptoms marks the invasion period of humans. Keep update yourself about Monkeypox Virus Infection- Causes | Signs and Precautions with Best allergy hospital in India.

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After 1-3 days of the occurrence of fever begins the period of skin eruptions, marked by the occurrence of lesions which develop and grow sequentially. Different stages include macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, and crusts.

  1. Macule refers to a discolored area on the skin, a flat base with no change in thickness of the skin.
  2. Macule then grows into a papule, which is a small pimple or swelling on the skin.
  3. Vesicles, grow from papules, and are fill with clear fluid.
  4. Growth is further follow by the presence of pustules, which are fill with yellow-colored fluid, often call pus.
  5. Crust, remains of lesions that dry up and fall off.

The number of these lesions on the body may be from a few to several thousand. In severe cases, large sections of skin slough off along with the lesions. What are BA.4 and BA.5 sub-variants of Omicron? Symptoms and Precautions | How Omicron Variants lead to a COVID surge in India?

Precautions of Monkeypox Disease:

  • Since it is a zoonotic disease, animal-to-human transmission can be prevent by avoiding unprotect and direct contact with the potential reservoirs of the disease.
  • The meat of the animals should be thoroughly cook before consuming them.
  • Avoid close and direct contact with the infected persons, especially health workers and house-members of the diseased person who are at potentially high risk.
  • Pay special attention to hand hygiene.
  • In health care facilities, samples of the diseased person for diagnosis should be safely package.
  • Wear disposable gloves and take care of a strict hygiene routine when around diseased patients.
  • Healthcare workers who frequently handle and examine an infected person should also avoid direct blood exposure. Physicians should administer the smallpox vaccine before examining patients with monkeypox. Visit, What Are The Long-Term Lung Problems After Covid-19?

In Conclusion- Best Allergy Hospital in India

Due to lack of knowledge about monkeypox disease, it can prove to be fatal. There is currently no cure or vaccination available for this condition. So, the antivirals vaccine-induced encephalitis (VIGs) is used to prevent epidemics of smallpox. After the virus enters the body, small pox vaccine should be give at the very beginning, only then it can be prevent.

Also, the risk is greatly minimized. If the rashes on your body start turning into wounds and there is more pain in it, then understand that it can prove to be dangerous for you. Also, consult or book an appointment at Best Allergy Hospital in Jaipur or call us +91-9352934531.

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